Thursday, November 28, 2019

Black Psychology Essay Essay Example

Black Psychology Essay Paper Abstraction: This is an autobiographical essay where I briefly analyzes and interpret important and impactful events that has transpired over my last 20 old ages in my life from school to my community in Portland. Oregon. The aim of this essay is to link constructs and the class aims related to Black Psychology which I enrolled in at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University ( FAMU ) spring 2009 term. The lineation for this essay is in a chronological age order get downing from my birth in 1988 till my current experience at FAMU. The book that is chiefly referenced in this essay is the Kobi K. Kambon text edition African/ Black Psychology in American Context: An African Centered Approach along with Joseph Baldwin’s category lectures that I attended. Divided Among two Different Positions of the World: But this is my Story The thought that a black individual is from Portland. Oregon seems to be flooring information for certain African-Americans. Once I introduce myself to new friends and professors who neer traveled to Portland or were neer informed that â€Å"Black people† live in Oregon. We will write a custom essay sample on Black Psychology Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Black Psychology Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Black Psychology Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Many are intrigued by this information and have a pursuit to cognize more. So to reply that inquiry. yes there are inkinesss who live in Oregon. I am a merchandise of Oregon I. Michelle Williams. was born and raised in the urban community in Portland amongst other African-Americans. One may presume that I had a hard clip turning up in Oregon. Experiencing favoritism. racism. or individuality crisis ; nevertheless. my six siblings and I neer did. Although. I did non see those types of issues. I understood that in Portland. the Black race was the minority and Europeans were the bulk in the race factor. In add-on. make non presume that my household line of descent merely lines in Oregon. on both sides of my household southern roots run deep. Therefore. southern traditions. values. ethical motives. beliefs. and imposts were inbreeded into my up brings. Without inquiries. I am an Afro-american adult female from Portland. Oregon ; nevertheless. my geographic part does non specify my inkiness. nor does it find if I am capable of sing adversities like my fellow equals who were raised in Southern provinces. In my early childhood. I resided with my maternal grandma due to my parent’s maltreatment to their environment and the usage of narcotics. However. my clip spent with my grandma was non in vena. yet filled with old ages of detecting and larning how to continue traditional southern values. which the modern universe of psychological science considers the â€Å"African/ Black Worldviews† . In the book. African/ Black Psychology in the American context: An African- Centered Approach Kobi K. Kambon explains the difference between the African/ Black and European Worldviews. The four constituents that compose the worldviews are: cosmology. ontology. axiology. and epistemology ( Kambon. 1998 ) In the African/ Afro-american worldviews one are taught to believe in oneness/ harmoniousness with nature. endurance of the group. sameness ; whereas the European Worldview have the impression of endurance of the fittest. competiveness. independency. and uniqueness ( being different ) . In my in-between childhood my parents redirected their life. and my female parent returned to college and obtained her unmarried mans and Masterss in Psychology with a child in Black Studies at Portland State University. While in school she begun to integrate her findings into her parenting. Although. my female parent and I were led by Eurocentric instructions. my household and our milieus reinforced the black/African-American Worldviews in the family. I recall myself accommodating to the political orientations and beliefs of those who were non within my ain autochthonal cultural group. Kambon defines this experience as a black kid who has been influenced by Eurocentric instructions ensuing in â€Å"Abnormal Unnatural Circumstances† . The kid has accepted and identified him or herself as a member of a â€Å"group that is non autochthonal cultural world ( Kambon. 1998 ) . I was able to resile back to the normal-nature fortunes. with the aid of my Black community friends. and household through our ethical motives and beliefs. I had to remain true to my ain cultural world and non be amongst those who are â€Å"cultural mis-identified† . An illustration of how I demonstrated unnatural unnatural fortunes was when I accepted the European doctrines and allowed the Whites to order and specify what was appropriate or rectify based off their criterions and positions on life. By this I allowed the impression that white Barbie dolls are better. instead than the Black China Doll my grandma purchased for Christmas one twelvemonth. While in in-between school. which is considered my late or pre-adolescence old ages. I was offered credence into the Talent and Gift besides known as the TAG plan. The TAG plans awards and congratulates pupils â€Å"who demonstrated outstanding abilities or potencies in countries of general rational ability or specific ability aptitude† ( Davenport Community School Website ) . After detecting the truth in the Black Psychology class. I have come to the apprehension that this peculiar plan has several defects that discriminates against the Black race. The black pupils who excel above the criterions set for Blacks are called â€Å"Talented or Gifted† . In chapter eight it stated that â€Å"there was some Blacks who scored every bit high as White persons on Standard trials of alleged intelligence ( i. vitamin E research on Black â€Å"gifted† kids ) † ( Kambon. 1998 ) . The foundation of the Tag plan continues and supports â€Å"White Supremacy† . The definition the European psychologist usage to specify intelligence which were examined on Caucasians merely was: â€Å" ( a ) the repertory of intellectual/cognitive accomplishments and cognition available to a individual at any one period of clip. or ( B ) the sum of planetary capacity of the person to move intentionally. to believe rationally. and to cover efficaciously with his/her environment† ( Kambon. 1998 ) . The names of a twosome of tests that exemplified that one was intelligent were: The Alfred Binet and the Binet Test. besides known as Intelligence Quotient/ IQ. Charles Spearman with the GS Factor trial. and a few others ( Kambon. 1998 ) . Robert L. Williams the 2nd National Chairman/ President of American of Black Psychologists ( ABPsi ) ( Kambon. 1998 ) . developed a â€Å"Black â€Å"cultural specific† intelligence trial which demonstrated that Blacks could execute high quality to White persons on such a Black cultural based trial. The trial was called Black Intelligence Test for Cultural Homogeneity† officially known as â€Å"BITCH’ . His intelligence trial showcased that Afro-american pupils were out executing Whites by 30 to 50 points ( Kambon. 1998 ) . In dealingss to my credence to the TAG plan I felt a sense of being privileged. superior. and connected to the white race in some sense. I belittled my equals who the Europeans and the trial scored them as being underperformers. Through my actions I had continued on the European worldviews. The people see the good that the TAG plan promotes ; nevertheless. there are down sides and negative features of being called a â€Å"Talented or Gifted† kid. In my early adolescence old ages. I was considered at times a pupil who could be insubordinate. disrespectful. and riotous in category. However. my actions were to dispute an inquiry my teacher’s doctrine about Western History. colonisation in Africa. bondage. and anything that focused on the Black race. Now looking back on what transpired in high school I was seeking to detect the truth sing my peoples. I tried to unknot the muss that the Europeans. Western historiographers. philosophers. and psychologist created. Removing the blind folds that had been placed over my eyes through the European instructions ; I was tired of having the edited. shorten. and beautified narrative the instructors and academic course of study spoon-feed me every twelvemonth during the one month Blacks are allowed to observe their history ( February ) . I have come to accept that cognition is cardinal and discovered like John Henrik Clarke that. â€Å"African History/ Negro History are the losing pages of World History† ( John Henrik Clarke. 1996 ) . In chapter three of Kambon books. he explains this thought of cultural world and worldviews concept. and how â€Å"ones ideas beliefs. values and actions are non unambiguously our ain. distinguishable and separate from those of others. peculiarly other individuals† ( Kambon. 119 ) . In today’s society we accept as true that European’s set the criterions or dictated/ guide one to believe that their ways of life and making things are how things ought to be done ; continues white domination. I am now in my 3rd twelvemonth at FAMU as a nursing major interested in psychological science. following sibling’s footfalls of go toing a Historical Black University. My journey in the Black Psychology has taught me new things about my personality and where I come from. In my sentiment Oregon is a diverse and complex province. I had adopted and balanced the different worldviews. From my secondary instruction I have come to a new found cognition about this Black Psychology and it’s endeavoring for flawlessness in the Black communities. I have come to understand that my people are from the Southern or African Cradle. which developed before the Northern or European Cradle a theoretical account Diop ( Kambon. 1998 ) . I am from the line of descent of ill-famed Pharaoh’s and Queens such as Narmar. Pharaoh and Queen who whore the ruddy and white Crown Hatshepsut ( Abarry. 1996 ) . For old ages information has been hidden and sheltered from my equals and I. Not merely from the African descendants in Oregon. but from all of the descendants of Africa has that populated the 50 provinces in America. I have learned that I am a descendent of great Queens and Kings and African’s who were educated. governed themselves. ran a successful economic system that was developed in many facets before the 1500’s when Europeans arrived. Ancient Kemit ( KMT ) and the Ma’at which is the foundation in which the KMT people lived by ( Abarry. 1996 ) . I have grown accustomed to both Western and this new psychological science called â€Å"Black Psychology† . I am able to detect and to the full understand and acknowledge the class objectives in Black Psychology because I have been in the ream of both universes. My parents were educated and merchandises of the early 60’s ; where there was a big motion on civil rights and black psychologist doing a alteration for the black community. Such as the Pan-African Cultural patriotism motion group who where â€Å"Black Psychologist who advocate that race and civilization are the foundation of African self-identity and psychological well being† ( Kambon. 1998 ) . Black psychological science has made enormous achievements ; they have challenged the ideals and political orientations of Western Psychology. Rather than being the blinded trial mice used in Western Psychology. Black psychologist has made a grade in Psychology. There has been a creative activity of Psychology geared to the Blacks. They have developed an impressive column diary that comes out quarterly called The Journal of Black Psychology which has been around for about 35 old ages ( Kambon. 1996 ) . The members of the Association of Black Psychologist have overcome many obstructions that have been presented in forepart of them. and will go on to make so for following old ages to come ( Kamon. 1998 ) . I find that my head was one time held prisoner in a sense. before I entered college under Europocentric instructions. I upheld the thoughts of Eurocentric instructions. yet the position quo has changed ; in favour for the Black Race. and my cognitive for that affair. In today’s society black kids are taught by a Eurocentric instruction. where there is a mis-education which manifests itself in the Eurocentric conceptual captivity ( Kambon. 1998 ) . The portrayal the European psychologists painted through their positions and surveies of the black race. personality. mental wellness. and behavioural jobs have non reflected the Black people in anyhow. On the contrary it has caused a separation between inkinesss. Those who believed in altering the psychological science universe for the black race have succeeded at establishing its topographic point and did non let the criterions set by Western Psychology to be the foundation for Black Psychology ( Kambon. 1996 ) . Today the black’s can see the ‘great deepness of the Eurocentric cultural captivity that encapsulates African rational consciousness and scholarship. † ( Kambon. 1998 ) . Which has caused a developmental job of the cognition of the African/ black race. From the motive of Francis Cecil Sumner. Herman G. Canady. Robert L. Williams. Marcus Gravey. Nat Turners. W. E. B Dubois. Frances Cress Welsing. and the 1000s of members of the Association of Black Psychology. there is a psychological science that focuses on the black community which is non defined by the Western Psychology criterions. It is up to pupils like me to use the indispensable tools from classs like Black Psychology. and turn a deaf ear to the myths and misdirecting information that the Western Psychology one time succeeded at imprisoning. This was my experience from turning up in Portland. Oregon and doing a much demand journey to Florida A A ; M University which landed me a place in Dr. Joseph Baldwin class Black Psychology. References Abarry. S. . Asante. M. . ( 1996 ) . African rational Heritiage. Philadelphia. PA: Temple Press A Great and Might Walk. Dir. St. Claire Bourne. Perf. Wesley Snipes John Henrik Clarke. 1996. Bourne. C. [ Westley Snipes ] ( 1996 ) : Los Angles Davenport Community School Website. ( 1998. Aug ) . Retrieved Mar. 09. 2009. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. Davenport. k12. Iowa. us/curriculum/gifted. asp Kambon. K. ( 1998 ) . African/ black psychological science in the American context: an african- centered attack. Tallahassee. Sunshine state: Nubian Nation Publication.

Monday, November 25, 2019

FDR and the Great Depression essays

FDR and the Great Depression essays The Great Depression beginning in 1929 was a time of hardship and suffering for many Americans. The people of the United States looked for leadership, sympathy, and someone help to get them through this time. Herbert Hoover, President at this time, offered little help to the people. Hoover did not believe in direct relief because it would hurt self-esteem and pride. In the eyes of the public, he seemed unresponsive to their needs. He urged people to help each other and encouraged non-government actions by private organizations. Businesses agreed to sustain pay and production to avoid numerous strikes. Urging states to increase spending on public projects, he hoped to create jobs without being directly involved with spending the deficit. He created the President's Organization on Unemployment Relief, which was designed to generate private donations for relief to the public. He had workers building the Hoover and Grand Coulee Dams that required more spending by the government. The Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929 created the Federal Farm Board. This organization supported crop prices by buying excesses and keeping them off the market. Eventually, it ran out of money. In 1931, Hoover announced an extension on payments of WWI debts. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was created and given 2 billion dollars to loan money to banks, insurance companies, railroads, and local/state governments. This system was supposed to give money to the top of the economic chain and allow it to spread to the rest of the country. Hoover passed the Hawley Smoot Tariff of 1930. This raised taxes on incoming foreign products, which decreased their money flow and flexibility to buy American products. Hoover's background made him see a balanced budget as most important and deficit spending as wrong. He decreased spending and increased taxes. He encouraged people to spend money to spur the economy, but the taxes prevented them from doing so. ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Compare the quiet american to max boot chapter Essay

Compare the quiet american to max boot chapter - Essay Example Thomas Fowler: â€Å"The pursuit of U.S. for neo-imperial foreign policy is often disguised as an attempt to rebuild and aid a vulnerable nation. Unknown to many, the U.S. consented the bombings in Vietnam for this same pursuit.† Max Boot: â€Å"This is not an ‘either or’ condition, the U.S. had to fight to establish a precondition for a negotiation. The situation warrants Colonel Littleton W.T. Waller to disarm the Haitian army and fight the Cacos.† Thomas Fowler: â€Å"The problem with the U.S. foreign policy can be clearly illustrated in the Vietnam war where thousands of lives were lost. The U.S. was preoccupied with their commitment to eliminate communism and pursued a war that lasted for nearly fifteen years. The U.S. utilized its military force to attain its goal. But the war ended with the failure of the U.S. to accomplish its goal. The U.S. became too absorbed in shaping everything in an ‘American way.’† Max Boot: â€Å"The failure of the U.S. in Vietnam is not due to a flawed U.S. foreign policy but to too much reliance of Vietnamese leaders on the U.S. and commitment of various errors. The North Vietnam, which is a communist regime utilized its human resources. A generation of the North Vietnamese was eliminated. Hanoi compelled its citizen to participate in the war effort of the country through entrenching a distribution system for basic goods. In addition, the U.S. forces depended too much on modern equipment and weaponry. The U.S. used conventional manner against North Vietnams unconventional warfare. The U.S. underestimated the nature of their nemesis, the political struggle, and the effects of supporting an unpopular and weak regime. These factors explain why the U.S. lost in Vietnam.† Thomas Fowler: â€Å"It should be reiterated that the U.S. is mainly driven to protect their ‘interest.’ This is manifested by their intervention in Vietnam, which is fuelled by the belief that communism will

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Business Scenario Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Business Scenario - Essay Example making process in Kava. Let us consider the factors for each factor and explore them further. The three main factors identified are Business Risks, Business Environment and Stakeholders. The Business risks have been identified as natural and man made disasters. Natural disasters can be tsunamis, earthquakes and so on. Since Kava is in an island in the South Pacific regions, these factors can cause widespread damage. But there are many countries in this area that have managed to survive and prosper in this same region and they have done this by creating the right type of infrastructure. Nike Corporation needs to develop better weather forecasting methods that would help to serve as early warning systems for the occurrence of such events. With their massive clout, they need to get satellite warning systems that can analyze the weather and give sufficient warning. They also need to develop earthquake-warning systems that would foretell the occurrence of earthquakes. Man made disasters include AIDS and Avian Flu. AIDS is a global phenomenon and this can be mitigated by creating sufficient awareness about the disease and invoking proper safe sex methods among the populace. If a certain section of the populace such as sex workers are suspected to be the main source, then they need to be hospitalized and proper treatment given to them. Avian flu and other diseases are also global maladies and sufficient expertise is available in combating them. Proper health procedures, health checks, etc. can be implemented to ensure that the disease does not spread and is contained effectively. It is very important that a common consensus and effort be developed among all the citizens to combat these events. Since these factors can affect all communities, mitigating these risks can serve as the start point of creating a common bonding and a common identity. Business environment factors include the various communities and groups that are active in the

Monday, November 18, 2019

Art as we know it Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Art as we know it - Essay Example These include the Early Christian Art, Romanesque Art, Islamic Art, Byzantine Art, Migration Period Art, Pre-Romanesque Art, Celtic Art and Gothic Art to name a few. With that there is a strong enough relational basis for the respective artistic styles and when looked at in an individual fashion, they all form up as the sub parts of the Medieval Art period. These could comprise of the Anglo-Saxon Art and Viking Art. On a different tangent, Medieval Art period includes a number of significant mediums, where the emphasis is more towards the fields of sculpture, mosaics and manuscripts to name a few. Also with that, the basis was strong in terms of the genres of art which involved the Crusade Art, also known as animal style. One should understand that Medieval Art period actually grew out of the Roman Empire and the legacy attached with it. The linkage is strong in terms of its basis with the Christian church for this matter. The history of the Medieval Art period thus makes count for the historical interplay which was present between the significant elements of classical, earliest Christian times as well as that from the pagan art, another school of artistic design. The different genres within the Medieval Art period entailed the classification by culture and region. In terms of the same, there was a long list of art within this Medieval Art period, a few of which are the Coptic Art, Old Russian Art, Serbian Art, Cypriot Art, Romanian Art, Bosnian Art and Kiev Rus Art to name a few. The Islamic Art includes the basis of the Abbasid Art, Hafsid Art, Mecca Art, Persian Art, Umayyad Art and others. Then there is a separate basis for the Jewish Art within the Medieval Art period. Moving towards Western Europe, one finds that the classification is pretty strong within the Medieval Art period where there is Lombard Art, Pictish Art, Roman Art, Anglo-Saxon Art, Flemish Art, Mosan Art, Spanish Art, Viking Art and many other artistic

Friday, November 15, 2019

Ethical Situation in Healthcare

Ethical Situation in Healthcare Azmir Bin Abdul Latiff ENQUIRY 3 Discuss the situation described from the perspective of the health and human services professional. What would be the most appropriate response to the situation? Include in your answer the: ethical frameworks, theories and principles appropriate to responding to the scenario relevant professional codes of ethics and codes of practice relevant legislation and guidelines, statute and common law, government guidelines. cultural and community values related to the issue, and comment on what would be appropriate and inappropriate responses of the health professional to the situation. Case Study Three Dr Simons was the new Surgical Consultant at a large public hospital. He was trained in the USA, and came with a reputation for being very fierce. Dr Simons regularly yelled at other staff, in particular Nurses, if his requests were not immediately met. He justified that if â€Å"Chefs could yell at staff in a kitchen, where nobody’s life is at stake, he could yell at incompetence when it is a life and death situation†. Although the Nursing staff disliked Dr Simons, they continued to work with him as they felt intimidated. One nurse, Clare, worked in Recovery where she looked after patients directly after they had surgery. She noticed that a very large proportion of Dr Simons’ patients were in considerable pain after surgery, and several patients had adverse outcomes such as heavy bleeding from the surgical site. Clare was concerned about this, but was scared to report it for fear of reprisal from Dr Simons. Eventually she was so worried about the patients’ health she made an official complaint to the Hospital management. She was called in to the Director of Nursing and told that if she ever made trouble like that again, a reason would be found to not continue her employment. She was told that Dr Simons was a senior staff member, and she had no right to make complaints about his medical conduct as she was â€Å"only a Nurse†. What should Clare’s response be? As healthcare professionals, Nurse Clare and Doctor Simons are bound by or influenced by professional codes of practice and ethics, Hippocraticoaths, statutes and laws and government guidelines. Clare was being responsible and professional by reporting and making an official complaint to the hospital management as she was concerned for the health and well being of her patients. It is her responsibility to report any suspicions of malpractice or substandard care to the higher authority if the senior staff members do not investigate and take actions to mitigate the suspicions. Considering that most of Doctor Simon’s patients were in a lot of pain and were exhibiting signs of heavy bleeding at the surgical site, Clare did raised her concerns to the hospital management and may have had exposed him to medical malpractice in the process. Instead of investigating the issue, the hospital management threatened to discontinue her employment. The fact that Doctor Simon is protected by the senior staff members despite his incompetence and medical malpractice is disturbing. Health professionals have codes of practice and guidelines to abide by. The National law requires Clare to report to a government body, AHPRA , if registered health practitioner knows of another practitioner’s destructive actions. AHPRA is a government body that focuses on serious cases of substandard practice or conduct by practitioners, or serious cases of impairment. This is to safeguard patients and to reduce or prevent the risk of potential harm from a result of medical malpract ice, negligence or impairment. A mandatory notification requirement helps to prevent the public from being placed at risk of harm. This shows that Clare have the right to report Doctor Simon’s attitude and actions to AHPRA if the senior staff members do not take action against Doctor Simon after the reported incidents as Doctor Simon have behaved in a way that poses a serious risk to the public. Ethics refers to standards of behaviors which are the best possible act in the many situations and issues that are raised as concerns. Ethics are not based on science, law, religion, accepted social norm, or feelings. It is viewed as approaches or processes such as, the utilitarian approach, an approach that is the one that provides the most good or does the least harm. The Utilitarian Approach deals with penalty; it tries both to increase the good done and to reduce the harm done. The Rights Approach is the one that best protects and respects the moral rights of those affected. This approach starts from the belief that humans have a dignity based on their human nature and their ability to choose freely what they do with their lives. TheJustice Approach, the idea that all people should be treated equally and fairly. Each of the approaches helps us determine what standards of behavior can be considered ethical. As there are still problems with the mentioned approaches, not all healthc are professionals agree to the specific approaches or the same set of human and civil rights. An ethical framework based on the approaches is to first recognize the ethical issue. After that, the healthcare professional must gather all the facts pertaining to the issue. He/she then must learn more about the situation and lay down the options available before acting on it. Subsequently, the next step would be to evaluate alternative approaches like the Utilitarian approach, Rights approach or Justice approach that best fits the situation. After considering the suitable approach needed to tackle the situation, he/she must act on the decided options. The end result must be reflected and evaluated if need be for further improvements. As a healthcare professional, Doctor Simon is to abide by the Ethics that is in the best interest of his patients. This means that he must provide the best healthcare and at the same time, reduce the amount of harm done on his patients. In Clare’s perspective, she viewed Doctor Simon’s actions as most harmful to the patients as he had caused a lot of pain and bleeding to his patients’ surgical site. As he did not abide by the Ethics in Clare’s viewpoint, she has the right to report him to the higher authority to protect the patients. The practice of Doctor Simon who caused pain and heavy bleedings to his patients was accepted by his peers may be due to the ‘Bolam’ test where traditionally, doctors were not said to have breached their duty of care if they acted in accordance with a practice accepted by their peers: Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee (1957). As their peers were the ones who set the standard, substandard care and malpractice were more prominent during those times as long as the practice conducted is accepted by the rest. However, this soon changed because of an incident whereby a patient was left almost blind when the doctor had failed in informing her on the risk of sympathetic ophthalmia. In this case, there were two opposing sides in which one would inform the patient and another would not inform. Due to this, the law was changed and the standard was set not by peers but by the court instead. Based on the Professional code of Ethics and Conduct, Ethical Frameworks, Theories and Principles, and Law and Guidelines, Clare should report to AHPRA if the higher authorities did not take any actions against Doctor Simon. By reporting to AHPRA also on the culture of the higher authority in her hospital, Clare would be able to break the inappropriate culture that is similar to ‘Bolam’ test. By doing so, Clare would be able to help stop the substandard practices and minimize the potential harm on the patients while maximizing the healthcare system to its optimum capabilities. This way, the patients would be able to receive better care with a methodological and ethical approach. References Dhai, A. (2008). Understanding professionalism in health care in the twenty first century.SADJ, 63, 174, 176-7 Faunce, T., Shat, K., Adams, C. (2008). Health the law. : Hot topics (Sydney, N.S.W.); no. 64. Retrieved on 30/5/2014 from: M.Velasquez, D. Moberg, M. J. Meyer, T. Shanks, M. R. McLean, D. DeCosse, Claire Andre and Kirk O. Hanson. A Framework for Thinking Ethically (May 2009) retrieved from:

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Admiralty Outline :: essays research papers

Admiralty Outline Overview Admiralty is federal law, originating in Article III,  § 2 of Constitution. i.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  First Congress included Cases of Admiralty/Maritime in Judiciary Act. ii.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Supremacy Clause. b.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  If say that case is admiralty/maritime case, governed by admiralty law, is to say that substantive admiralty law applies. i.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Differences: statute of limitations, comparative laws for recovery, etc. a.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Main: trial by judge. From very beginning, admiralty cases are w/o juries. May be why someone brings suit in admiralty – to avoid the jury. ii.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Admiralty cases can’t be removed from state to federal courts. a.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  but most admiralty cases can be brought in state courts unless qualify under diversity. b.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  But federal admiralty law will be applied. iii.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jurisdiction arises under: a.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  28 USC 1331: federal question b.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  28 USC 1332: diversity c.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  28 USC 1333: admiralty & maritime. iv.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  BUT, Congress didn’t choose to enact substantive law in the statutes – left to courts. v.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Courts mainly address three issues: a.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  what is an admiralty case? b.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  if it is, what is the admiralty rule? c.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  construing the savings to suitors clause – eg, what types of cases does Congress mean to say that we only want federal courts sitting in admiralty to have jurisdiction over? Basics of Admiralty Requires: Locality + maritime nexus -  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Executive Jet decision. -  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  DeLovio v. Boit (1815): Maritime insurance policies are within admiralty & maritime jurisdiction of US b/c maritime contracts include charter parties, affreightments, marine bonds, Ks for repairing, supplying & navigating ships, Ks between part owners – etc – AND insurance. Historical limitations: -  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Could only sue in rem -  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Forbade actions in personam vs. shipowner, master. -  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Rules precluding admiralty court from hearing matters arising w/in body of the country. -  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Forbidding admiralty jurisdiction where no influence of tide. -  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Forbidding admiralty jurisdiction involving building or sale of ship. -  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Thomas Jefferson (SCOTUS, 1825): Action arising on Ohio to Missouri river is not in admiralty, because no influence of tide.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Great Lakes Act (1845): extends jurisdiction to G. Lakes. o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Becomes almost superfluous after Genesee Chief, but – still allows saving to suitors the right of jury trial if wanted. o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Possible to have an equal protection argument – why in GL, but not other inland navigable waters. But no caselaw.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Genesee Chief v. Fitzhugh (SCOTUS, 1851): overrules the TJ. Holds that GL Act is Constitutional. o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Lakes are inland seas o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Hostile fleets have been encountered on them, prizes made, reason to have admiralty jurisdiction. o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Nothing particular in the tide that makes waters suitable for admiralty. o  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Limiting admiralty in country with so many inland navigable waters is impracticable.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Democracy in the US

Each of us is aware that change is everywhere we look. No segment of society is exempt. We as the public are dealing with the advent of continuous and ever increasing change. Change in technology, change in resource availability, change in national demographics, change in workforce diversity, change in simply every facet of the organizational environment and context in which public institutions must operate. Change, as the saying goes, has truly become the only constant. The challenge for organizations is whether they can become flexible enough, fast enough. And will they do it on terms set by the organizational culture, and then adapt and succeed in the face of it or will they challenge the status quo and attempt to transform the prevailing culture. What follows is the story of a public organization, which is trying to change the context under which it performs rather than be changed by that context. In the realm of Philosophy, as Erasmus of Rotterdam, the first truly great humanist of the modern age once said, â€Å"The intent suffices in a great design†. Erasmus, no doubt was right. However, beyond simple intent, or to phrase it in the current vernacular, vision, action is required to bring the vision to life. In any age, there are those individuals willing to challenge the status quo, whether it is in the field of politics, science, business, or public administration. If these individuals are to enjoy a measure of success, they must be willing to take an inordinate amount of risk and withstand criticism, indifference and cynicism from every quarter. Most importantly, they must have the capacity to envision a great design and then transform that vision into action. A skeptic would find little or no relationship between philosophy and the modern practice of the public. A purist would probably go further and find offensive the very idea of comparing these two seemingly opposed disciplines. One, grounded in the metaphysical pursuit of knowledge for its own sake, and the other, a pragmatic and practical effort to conduct the public's business, appear to be at opposite ends of an intellectual continuum. Closer examination reveals that both disciplines share similar characteristics and both pursue parallel aims. Philosophy and public administration seek to understand human motivation, philosophy for the sake of pure knowledge, and public administration to harness this understanding to practical ends. Human apprehension and resistance to change is but one aspect of this understanding that is shared by both disciplines. The idea of a flatter, more horizontal organization, one with a minimum number of organizational layers separating the front line employees from senior management is by no means new. Organizations, if one can call them that, in the early years of the industrial revolution consistently reflected an absolute minimum number of layers. Indeed, a face to face relationship often existed between ownership or management and the employee or worker. As methods of production grew increasingly complex and the principles of scientific management were applied, more and more layers of organizational structure were created. Organizations being ongoing entities, these layers tended to become permanent features of the organizational landscape, often well beyond the time where they†re original intent and usefulness has become obsolete. The private as well as the public sectors has found that the pressures of operating successful enterprises in an ever-changing competitive world, demand new management approaches. A realization has emerged that a principal impediment to the rapid response to a changing environment is organizational structure.    The organization, which was to emerge, was to strive to become boundaryless, free from the confines of the hierarchical past, and organized around processes rather than functions. We desired to become a customer-oriented, fast, focused, flexible, friendly and fun organization. But here again the government felt as though they need to step in. We carefully blended concepts from a diverse variety of management thinkers. As we met in community meetings, every idea and suggestion that complemented our vision of the future organization was documented on video and considered. If we valued the people as assets, then we had to come to respect them. Our habits and organizational routines stripped people of initiative and pride. People frequently did â€Å"leave their brains in the parking lot† as a way of coping with the nature of the anything. They did it because the message we sent through all of our command and control structures, most notably, that people shouldn't do anymore than what the job description said. And we reinforced this with compensation systems that rewarded this behavior. We had to set these human resources free. The people of the U.S. needed to feel that they had a right to exercise the freedom to think and the freedom to act. We would work very hard to demonstrate we were credible on this point. Until we could free all of our assets and apply them to the services we render, it was hopeless to believe that our customer focus could be evident. Individually, we hope to achieve meaningful and lasting contributions. To do this, we must first look inward and objectively determine what our strengths and weaknesses are. Ideally, we should be able to use the benefits of the former to slowly erode the drawbacks of the latter. Persistence and patience, coupled with the use of character, should allow us to achieve this end. Organizations, however, rely on the interdependent actions of the individuals that comprise it. Therefore, if these individuals hope to enact any significant changes they must first ensure that there is a commonality of purpose, a shared vision. Importantly, this vision must be embraced by and apply to each and every one of the members. In this fashion, interdependence and commonality of purpose can be achieved. Governments have found that they can legislate laws that define what is acceptable and what is not just as proven by Alexis de Tocqueville. This definition of acceptability is accompanied with a corresponding punishment. Governments draft, approve and enforce laws. They cannot, however, hope to legislate morals or morality. They have tried, and they have failed. That laws cannot prevent human beings from killing each another is not tragic. It is only one's conscience, based on the moral principles under which we were raised, that prevent us from breaking the law. The laws of the land say we must be punished, but the same laws are powerless to prevent us from killing does this sound just to you. Laws are the manifestation of the moral principles we all learned as children. They are the shared morality, the ethics, of a nation. We felt the need to create a code of ethics based on simple common sense principles derived from a general consensus. This was of paramount importance in our quest. To that end, we adopted our foundational principles. We choose to define empowerment, as the freedom to think and the freedom to act, with the appropriate knowledge of the responsibilities linked with the exercise of power. The first principle, to treat each other with respect and dignity, was embraced by all as the most important guiding principle. The second, that sharing is not a weakness, required a huge shift in perception. To view sharing as strength, rather than as a weakness, becomes very important in the context of the chaos of large-scale change. Without these principles, we could not proceed to fundamentally re-invent ourselves. There are a number of desired talents that any organization needs from its members in order to achieve excellence. Competence, becomes a de facto assumption, for without it the attainment of our goals and objectives is doomed to failure. However, competence, by itself, does not constitute the only element in this formula. Character is the catalyst that binds all the diverse organizational elements into a coherent whole. In fact, character is probably considerably more desirable than competence. Most organizations believe that you can teach skills to create or supplement competence, but you can not teach, dictate, or prescribe character. The third essential talent is intuition. We each have an inner voice which, when combined in the presence of character and competence allows us to do great things. This is a sadly an often ignored reality of leadership. Perhaps one day soon the people of today†s times will start seeing what minority groups of the government would just prefer we not.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Factors Affecting the Amount of Carbon Dioxide given off when a Carbonate reacts with an acid Essays

Factors Affecting the Amount of Carbon Dioxide given off when a Carbonate reacts with an acid Essays Factors Affecting the Amount of Carbon Dioxide given off when a Carbonate reacts with an acid Essay Factors Affecting the Amount of Carbon Dioxide given off when a Carbonate reacts with an acid Essay When an acid reacts with a metal carbonate, a metal salt, water and carbon dioxide are produced. The amount of carbon dioxide produced depends on various factors. The aim of this experiment is to find out how much Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is given off when different masses of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) are reacted with Hydrochloric acid (HCl). The factors affecting the amount of CO2 produced are listed below. Variables Continuos Variables Variable Temperature Very hard to keep constant. Amount of acid As long as there is excess for all carbonate to react, it is therefore not relevant. Concentration of acid Any acid as long as there are enough H+ ions in the acid to react with carbonate. Pressure Hard to keep constant. Surface area Hard to measure surface area of powdered Calcium Carbonate. Rate of stirring Hard to keep constant and very inaccurate. Time Not relevant as rate of reaction has no effect on amount of Carbon Dioxide produced. Amount of carbonate This is the factor under investigation Discontinuous Variables Factor Type of acid All acids contain H+ ions required for reaction. Type of carbonate Some carbonates such as Sodium are soluble, therefore I will not be able to investigate. In my investigation I have chosen to investigate the amount of carbonate rather than the type of carbonate as amount is a continuos variable and will produce a pattern rather than a random collection of carbonates. Constants The following variables will be kept constant: Variable Control of variable Temperature Room Temperature Type Concentration of acid 2M Hydrochloric Acid Amount of Acid 50ml Pressure Atmospheric Type of carbonate Calcium Carbonate Rate of stirring None Fair Test In order to make this investigation as fair as possible, all the constant variables must remain constant throughout the experiment, as mass of carbonate is the only variable changing. The experiment must be repeated at least twice so as not to get any anomalous results. The constants must be checked every time a result is taken. Prediction The volume of Carbon Dioxide produced will increase directly proportionally with the mass of Calcium Carbonate used. Calcium Carbonate Hydrochloric Acid Calcium Chloride Water Carbon Dioxide CaCO3 HCl CaCl2 H2O CO2 1 2 1 1 1 100g 73g 111g 18g 24dm3 g of CaCO3 produces 24000cm3 of CO2 g of CaCO3 produces 48000cm3 of CO2 g of CaCO3 produces 72000cm3 of CO2 g of CaCO3 produces 96000cm3 of CO2 From these calculations it is visible to say that doubling the mass of carbonate doubles the volume of Carbon Dioxide produced. Tripling the mass of carbonate triples the volume of Carbon Dioxide produced. The relationship is directly proportional and the graph of mass against volume shows a straight line through the origin. Safety Acids are corrosive and an irritant. Safety glasses and labcoats must be worn at all times. Wash hands after experiment. Reacting Moles Masses Calcium Carbonate Hydrochloric Acid Calcium Chloride Water Carbon Dioxide CaCO3 HCl CaCl2 H2O CO2 1 2 1 1 1 100g 73g 111g 18g 24dm3 g of CaCO3 produces 24dm3 of CO2 as 1 mole of any gas at room temperature and pressure occupies 24dm3. g of CaCO3 produces 240cm3 of CO2 g of CaCO3 produces 192cm3 of CO2 g of CaCO3 produces 144cm3 of CO2 g of CaCO3 produces 96cm3 of CO2 g of CaCO3 produces 48cm3 of CO2 The relationship is directly proportional and the graph of mass against volume shows a straight line through the origin. I have chosen to investigate the masses shown above ranging from 0.2g to 1.0g. This should give me a wide and consistent spread of results. I have decided to collect the CO2 produced in measuring cylinders, which the maximum size is 250ml. I will have to use masses to fit the size of the measuring cylinder. My calculations above confirm that none of the masses will produce more than the amount of the measuring cylinder. Sample Results table Mass of Calcium Carbonate (g) Volume of expected Carbon Dioxide (cm) Actual volume of Carbon Dioxide produced (cm) 0.2 48 0.4 96 0.6 144 0.8 192 1.0 240 Preliminary Work In my preliminary work I investigated the two extremes, 0.2g 1.0g of Calcium Carbonate. Mass of Calcium Carbonate (g) Volume of expected Carbon Dioxide (cm) Actual volume of Carbon Dioxide produced (cm) 0.2 48 34 1.0 240 176 In my preliminary work I realised that the actual volume of Carbon Dioxide was not the same as the expected volume of Carbon Dioxide. The percentage error was about 70%. This is because Carbon Dioxide is slightly soluble in water and some of the gas has dissolved forming Carbonic Acid. I also found several improvements that I could make to my final plan, being: 1. A fair amount of Calcium Carbonate was left un-reacted in the tube: The flask is shaken gently until all the Calcium Carbonate has fully reacted. 2. The delivery tube repeatedly dislodged itself from underneath the measuring cylinder. The delivery tube is held by hand to stop it dislodging. Method Apparatus required: * 50ml measuring cylinder (accurate to 1ml) * 100ml measuring cylinder (accurate to 1ml) * 250ml measuring cylinder (accurate to 2ml) * Trough * Delivery Tube * Round bottomed flask * Calcium Carbonate * 2M Hydrochloric acid * Balance * 5cm Tubes Diagram Method * Set apparatus as in diagram * Place a piece of paper on the balance and tear it * Measure out the required mass of Calcium Carbonate * Pour massed amount of Calcium Carbonate into tube * Place tube in the lip of the round bottomed flask * Connect the delivery tube to the flask * Tap gently so that the tube falls into the acid * Shake fairly vigorously, making sure you are holding the delivery tube so that it doesnt dislodge from under the measuring cylinder. * When all the Calcium Carbonate has reacted record the final volume of gas obtained. Obtaining Evidence Accuracy of apparatus For this experiment the measurements were recorded as accurately as the apparatus allowed: * 50ml measuring cylinder (accurate to 1ml) * 100ml measuring cylinder (accurate to 1ml) * 250ml measuring cylinder (accurate to 2ml) In order to obtain reliable results I repeated the experiment twice. This was done to ensure the all three of the results follow the same trend. To keep this experiment a fair test all three times the following were kept constant: Variable Control of variable Temperature Room Temperature Type ; Concentration of acid 2M Hydrochloric Acid Amount of Acid 50ml Pressure Atmospheric Type of carbonate Calcium Carbonate Rate of stirring None The following results were obtained: Experiment 1 Mass of Calcium Carbonate (g) Volume of expected Carbon Dioxide (cm3) Actual volume of Carbon Dioxide produced (cm3) 0.2 48 36 0.4 96 80 0.6 144 94 0.8 192 158 1.0 240 190 Experiment 2 Mass of Calcium Carbonate (g) Volume of expected Carbon Dioxide (cm3) Actual volume of Carbon Dioxide produced (cm3) 0.2 48 30 0.4 96 68 0.6 144 100 0.8 192 142 1.0 240 192 The results obtained above which are in bold I found to be anomalous results. In Experiment 1 -0.6g In Experiment 2 -1.0g I therefore repeated them: Repeats Mass of Calcium Carbonate (g) Volume of expected Carbon Dioxide (cm3) Actual volume of Carbon Dioxide produced (cm3) 0.6 144 98 1.0 240 188 Analysing From the results obtained I could plot the following graphs: 1) Experiment 1 A graph to show mass of CaCO3 against amount of CO2 produced 2) Experiment 2 A graph to show mass of CaCO3 against amount of CO2 produced 3) A graph to show mass of CaCO3 against average amount of CO2 produced with expected result All three of the graphs show that as mass of Calcium Carbonate is increased the amount of Carbon Dioxide produce increases. The straight line goes through the origin and therefore this relation is directly proportional. For example in experiment 1: 0.2g of CaCO3 produces 36cm3 of CO2 0.4g of CaCO3 produces 80cm3 of CO2 0.4g of CaCO3 produces 80cm3 of CO2 0.8g of CaCO3 produces 158cm3 of CO2 For example in experiment 2: 0.2g of CaCO3 produces 30cm3 of CO2 0.4g of CaCO3 produces 68cm3 of CO2 0.4g of CaCO3 produces 68cm3 of CO2 0.8g of CaCO3 produces 142cm3 of CO2 The examples above are not exactly directly proportional, but are very close. This is because of experimental error. Molar Calculation Calcium Carbonate Hydrochloric Acid Calcium Chloride Water Carbon Dioxide CaCO3 HCl CaCl2 H2O CO2 1 2 1 1 1 100g 73g 111g 18g 24dm3 g of CaCO3 produces 24dm3 of CO2 as 1 mole of any gas at room temperature and pressure occupies 24dm3. g of CaCO3 produces 240cm3 of CO2 g of CaCO3 produces 192cm3 of CO2 g of CaCO3 produces 144cm3 of CO2 g of CaCO3 produces 96cm3 of CO2 g of CaCO3 produces 48cm3 of CO2 From the molar calculations and from graph 3 it is visible that the relationship is directly proportional and the graph of mass against volume shows a straight line through the origin. For example: 0.2g of CaCO3 produces 48cm3 of CO2 0.4g of CaCO3 produces 96cm3 of CO2 0.4g of CaCO3 produces 96cm3 of CO2 0.8g of CaCO3 produces 192cm3 of CO2 After processing my results it can now concluded that as the mass of Calcium Carbonate is increased the amount of Carbon Dioxide produced increases. This relation is directly proportional. This can be supported with both my obtained results and the calculated results. These results do confirm the original prediction made earlier. The results support the original prediction as it was predicted that the volume of Carbon Dioxide produced will increase directly proportionally with the mass of Calcium Carbonate used. The results support the original prediction fairly well but not fully as there is one discrepancy. The results obtained are not exactly directly proportional but are close enough to being so. These slight differences are due to experimental error, which will be explained in detail in the Evaluating section in more detail. Evaluating Considering the equipment provided I think that the results obtained were fairly consistent and reliable. The results gave a distinct pattern similar to that of the expected results. I would consider the evidence to be reliable as they both follow the same trend on the graph. The experiment was repeated twice although in both experiments I obtained anomalous results. Both values are distinctly distanced from the line on the graph. On obtaining the anomalous results I repeated both the values and I found that both results were fairly similar to those previously obtained and therefore they seemed to be anomalous but they proved not to be as all three results fell all close to each other. I would consider the experiment not to be as reliable, as there were several factors, which need criticism: * The purity of the CaCO3 For this experiment the purity of the calcium carbonate was 98% and if it had been 100% pure than I think it would have made a difference. * Temperature of the room fluctuated. The temperature did remain constant throughout the whole experiment and so it might have had an effect on the experiment. * Not all the CO2 produced was collected. This is because Carbon Dioxide is slightly soluble in water and some of the gas has dissolved forming Carbonic Acid. Gas was still being left in the delivery tube. * Bubbles of gas were stuck to the measuring cylinder when reading was taken. When the final amount of gas produced was recorded, a fair amount of gas bubbles were on the sides of the measuring cylinder and therefore the volume will not be correct. * The flask is shaken fairly vigorously. In my method I had said that to dissolve all the CaCO3 I would need to shake the flask fairly vigorously. This however was not the case. The more vigorously the flask is shaken the more CO2 will dissolve and therefore only gentle shaking was needed. The conclusion obtained is supported fully by the results obtained. I consider my range of results to be an appropriate range in which I have made the conclusion. My values spread from 0.0g 1.0g, giving a wide spread. However this conclusion is only for the results obtained, this may not be the case if the experiment is done for values outside the range I investigated. If I were to do this experiment again I would: 1) Try the experiment with other Carbonates. I would predict that even for other carbonates, as the mass of Carbonate is increased the amount of Carbon Dioxide produced increases. This relation will be directly proportional. To prove this I will do the calculations for Magnesium Carbonate. Magnesium Carbonate Hydrochloric Acid Magnesium Chloride Water Carbon Dioxide MgCO3 2HCl MgCl2 H2O CO2 1 2 1 1 1 84g 73g 95g 18g 24dm3 g of MgCO3 produces 24dm3 of CO2 as 1 mole of any gas at room temperature and pressure occupies 24dm3. g of MgCO3 produces 286cm3 of CO2 g of MgCO3 produces 228cm3 of CO2 g of MgCO3 produces 171cm3 of CO2 g of MgCO3 produces 114cm3 of CO2 g of MgCO3 produces 57cm3 of CO2 Therefore it can be said that for any carbonate the relationship will be exactly the same, i.e. as the mass of Carbonate is increased the amount of Carbon Dioxide produced increases directly proportionally. 2) Do the whole experiment again but using various different pieces of apparatus. I would do an experiment, which doesnt include water, therefore no gas can be lost. Apparatus required: * Syringe * Trough * Delivery Tube * Round bottomed flask * Calcium Carbonate * 2M Hydrochloric acid * Balance * 5cm Tubes Method * Set apparatus as in diagram below * Place a piece of paper on the balance and zero it * Measure out the required mass of Calcium Carbonate * Pour massed amount of Calcium Carbonate into tube * Place tube in the lip of the round bottomed flask * Connect the delivery tube to the flask * Tap gently so that the tube falls into the acid * Shake fairly gently, making sure you are holding the delivery tube so that it doesnt dislodge from under the measuring cylinder. * When all the Calcium Carbonate has reacted record the final volume of gas obtained.

Monday, November 4, 2019

FIJI WATER HARVARD CASE ANALYSES ON CSR Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

FIJI WATER HARVARD CASE ANALYSES ON CSR - Essay Example Two of the main issues that the company was facing were objections about the carbon footprint and the usage of more energy to distribute packed water to required locations. In response to these issues, the company launched a carbon negative campaign claiming that its bottled water has no carbon footprint. However, with all the efforts towards ensuring people that the company adheres to the principles of corporate citizenship about the corporate social responsibility of the company, the critics are still raising concerns about the way the company operates its business activities. Bottled water companies imply that their water is clean as compared to tap water (Ruby). However, in this case study, the CSR issue is that packed water not only produces harm to the environment but also requires a lot of energy for production and transportation. The conservationists and environmentalists are continuously raising voice against the production and distribution of packed water because they think that tapped water has very less amount of carbon footprint as compared to packed water. As Arndt states, â€Å"one of the biggest arguments to support the ban on bottled water is the damage being done to the environment by the plastic bottles† (1). Moreover, they also think that the world is already facing fuel shortage and in such situation, using energy on producing bottled water cannot be justified. Every company needs to resolve these environmental issues by taking appropriate actions in order to demonstrate its corporate social responsibility. The circumstances surrounding corporate social responsibility issues for Fiji packed Water Company include the concerns for green environment and the current water and fuel crises all over the world. The company was going very successful in right through its start until 2008. However, from 2008, the downturn started for the company when people started raising concerns about the corporate social responsibility of

Friday, November 1, 2019

The Patriot Act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Patriot Act - Essay Example According to President Bush, â€Å"The Patriot Act defends our liberty. The Patriot Act makes it able for those of us in positions of responsibility to defend the liberty of the American people. It’s essential law† (Allen, 2004). According to the Justice Department, the PATRIOT Act gives support to and encourages enhanced sharing of information among various law enforcement agencies at the local, state and federal levels. In addition, this law assists law enforcement in their efforts to â€Å"connect the dots† from a wider scope of agencies when assembling evidence so as to â€Å"develop a complete picture† regarding possible threats from terrorists (Ward, 2002). Additionally, the Act increased border security funding and allows the Attorney General to disburse monetary rewards to those individuals and entities such as municipalities that have enjoined the fight against terrorism. Furthermore, it provides financial support for the training of first respond ers such as firefighters. Finally, the PATRIOT Act permits government agencies power to delay notification of search warrants, â€Å"which (is) a long-existing crime-fighting tool upheld by courts nationwide for decades in organized crime, drug cases and child pornography† (US Department of Justice, 2005). Critics of the Act suggest that is in contradiction to the tenants of the First Amendment. As an example, a citizen can be identified and treated as a terrorist if they are a breaking federal law such as trespassing on public property during a protest when a federal official is injured, not by that person but simply injured during the protest. This allows any person who was exercising their constitutional right of free speech to be arrested and detained indefinitely without benefit of legal counsel, a violation of the Fifth Amendment right to due process of law. Section 203 of the PATRIOT Act allows law enforcement officers to give CIA with no court order information received